TURKMENISTAN NEUTRAL INDEPENDENT STATE
The symbols of Turkmenistan are the state emblem of Turkmenistan, the national flag of Turkmenistan and Colour (Standard) of President of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan is situated in the western part of Central Asia. On the north and north-east it is bordered by Republics of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, on the south and south-east by Islamic Republics of Iran and Afghanistan, and in the western part it is washed by waters of the Caspian Sea.
Turkmenistan covers an area of 491.2 thousand sq. km. The territory extends up to 1100 km from the west to the east and up to 650 km from the north to the south.
The northern and central parts of Turkmenistan are occupied by sandy deserts of Turan lowlands – Central, Zaunguz and South-Eastern Karakums. The south and south-east of the country is occupied by mountains. The highest peak of Turkmenistan is in Koytendag (3139 m). The lowest point of Turkmenistan (-81 m) is cave Akchakaya.
Historically in the territory of Turkmenistan the ancient trade routes have been met, one of which is the Silk Road.
The climate of Turkmenistan is acutely continental, with the exception of coastal zone.
The mean annual air temperature along the territory is positive and changes in the plain part of Turkmenistan from 12-170C – to the north and up to 15-180C to the south-east. The coldest month is January. The summer on the plain territory is very hot and dry (the mean air temperature in July reaches 320C).
Average annual precipitation ranges from 95 mm (Karabogazgol bay) up to 398 mm in the mountains and foothills.
Turkmenistan is a multinational country. The representatives of more than 100 nations and nationalities live in Turkmenistan. The main part of population of the country is Turkmen.
The Turkmen language is the state language. It is related to the group of Turkic languages. The obligatory learning of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian is statutory established.
The prevailing religion in the territory of Turkmenistan is Islam. There are many mosques around the country; the biggest ones are located in Ashgabat, Geoktepe and Kipchak. Along with Muslim mosques there are temples of other religions.
The country guarantees the freedom of religions and their equal protection of the law. Religious organizations are separated from the state and do not interfere into affairs of the country. State educational system is separated from religious organizations and bears secular character.
The administrative-territorial system of Turkmenistan is represented by five regions (velayats) – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary, each of which in its turn is divided into districts. There are 50 districts, 16 cities, 9 towns in districts, 77 settlements, 565 rural municipal formations and 1937 villages. All cities, with the exception of capital of Turkmenistan – Ashgabat, are subordinated to regions in the territory of which they are located.